empire colonial portugais

[159][160], The loss of colonies was one of the reasons that contributed to the end of the personal union with Spain. Les Portugais considèrent le commerce et la navigation dans ces zones comme leur monopole absolu et répriment violemment les incursions des navires des autres pays européens. However, East Timor was almost immediately invaded by neighbouring Indonesia, which later occupied it up until 1999. Après une douzaine de tentatives portugaises, Gil Eanes double finalement le cap Bojador, point le plus méridional connu des Occidentaux, en 1434. [210], Presently, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) serves as the cultural and intergovernmental successor of the Empire. In 1446, Álvaro Fernandes pushed on almost as far as present-day Sierra Leone, and the Gulf of Guinea was reached in the 1460s. [130] Along with the Jesuit missions later came disease among the natives, among them plague and smallpox. This failed to happen and by the 1750s the Portuguese were able to implant a political stronghold in the region. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th centu… [28], As the Portuguese explored the coastlines of Africa, they left behind a series of padrões, stone crosses engraved with the Portuguese coat of arms marking their claims,[29] and built forts and trading posts. Jorge de Meneses discovered New Guinea in 1526, naming it the "Island of the Papua". "Overseas Council (Portugal)" in, Francis A. Dutra, "Salvador Correia de Sá e Benavides" in, History of the Konkan by Alexander Kyd Nairne pp. Expansion of sugarcane in Madeira started in 1455, using advisers from Sicily and (largely) Genoese capital to produce the "sweet salt" rare in Europe. When the Portuguese court fled to Brazil in 1807, following the Napoleonic invasion of Iberia, Brazil was removed from the jurisdiction of the council. [30], In 1492 Christopher Columbus's after-discovery for Spain of the New World, which he believed to be Asia, led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese. In 1668 Spain recognized the end of the Iberian Union and in exchange Portugal ceded Ceuta to the Spanish crown. [119], Upon de Sousa's arrival and success, fifteen latitudinal tracts, theoretically to span from the coast to the Tordesillas limit, were decreed by João III on 28 September 1532. Both the Portuguese and Kongo fought against Ndongo, and off-and-on warfare between the Ndongo and Portugal would persist for decades. Indigenous freedom decreased in contrast to its period under the Jesuits, and the response to intermarriage was lukewarm at best. One of the longest-lived empires in world history, it existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to Chinain 1999. S'ensuit la Révolution portugaise de 1820, qui est à la fois libérale et conservatrice : libérale, parce qu'elle exige le retour du roi à Lisbonne pour lui imposer une constitution ; conservatrice, parce qu'elle souhaite que le Brésil soit ramené à son ancien statut de colonie, et que les Portugais du Brésil soient privés de leurs droits politiques. [61] Learning of Siamese ambitions over Malacca, Albuquerque immediately sent Duarte Fernandes on a diplomatic mission to the Kingdom of Siam (modern Thailand), where he was the first European to arrive, establishing amicable relations and trade between both kingdoms. [44], A Portuguese fleet under the command of Tristão da Cunha and Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Socotra at the entrance of the Red Sea in 1506 and Muscat in 1507. [58] Though the trade was largely dominated by the Gujurati, other groups such as the Turks, Persians, Armenians, Tamils and Abyssinians traded there. Étape par étape, les Portugais contournent le continent africain pour atteindre les Indes, sous-continent aux richesses convoitées, avec lequel les contacts commerciaux terrestres ont été rompus depuis que les Turcs ottomans se sont emparés de Constantinople en 1453. In 1961, shortly after an uprising against the Portuguese in Angola, Nehru ordered the Indian Army into Goa, Daman and Diu, which were quickly captured and formally annexed the following year. La position internationale du Portugal est alors stabilisée pour plus de cent cinquante ans, et l'Empire devient à nouveau une source de profits substantiels. En 1483, Diogo Cao atteint l'embouchure du Congo. [149], In 1592, during the war with Spain, an English fleet captured a large Portuguese carrack off the Azores, the Madre de Deus, which was loaded with 900 tons of merchandise from India and China estimated at half a million pounds (nearly half the size of English Treasury at the time). The ensuing Cold War also created instabilities among Portuguese overseas populations, as the United States and Soviet Union vied to increase their spheres of influence. L'empire oriental connait son apogée sous le gouvernement de João de Castro (1545-1548), grâce aux conquêtes territoriales des années 1535 (Diu, Bassein), aux actions militaires contre les États indiens limitrophes (Bijâpur) et à la maîtrise du commerce des chevaux avec le puissant empire hindou du Sud de l'Inde, le Vijayanagar. Très vite le commerce très lucratif de l'or, de l'ivoire et des esclaves se substitue à l'esprit de découverte et de croisade. [54] The Portuguese maintained friendly relations with the south Indian Emperors of the Vijayanagara Empire. [99][100] De Novais' subsequent alliance with Ndongo angered Luso-Africans who resented the influence from the Crown. Les Portugais étendent leur domination jusqu'aux Moluques, îles riches en épices. Already cultivated in Algarve, the accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. [179], Encouraged by the example of the United States of America, which had won its independence from Britain, the colonial province of Minas Gerais attempted to achieve the same objective in 1789. Moreover, twelve candidate countries or regions have applied for membership to the CPLP and are awaiting approval. En 1602, les Néerlandais fondent la Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (Compagnie néerlandaise des Indes orientales) ou VOC. Par la suite, les possessions africaines (Angola, Mozambique, Guinée-Bissau) sont étendues. On parlait simplement d’« Outre-mer portugais » (Ultramar Português) avant d'adopter temporairement le terme d’« Empire colonial portugais » entre 1930 et 1951. It was published in 1595; the text was then included in the larger volume published in 1596 under the title "Itinerario: voyage, ofte schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien, 1579–1592". [168], Africans and Afro-Brazilians became the largest group of people in Minas Gerais. Benin's claims over São João Baptista de Ajudá were accepted by Portugal in 1974. It offered the opportunity to continue the Christian crusade against Islam; to the military class, it promised glory on the battlefield and the spoils of war;[7] and finally, it was also a chance to expand Portuguese trade and to address Portugal's economic decline. The 18th century was marked by increasing centralization of royal power throughout the Portuguese empire. Following the granting of independence to India by Britain in 1947, and the decision by France to allow its enclaves in India to be incorporated into the newly independent nation, pressure was placed on Portugal to do the same. With its smaller population, Portugal found itself unable to effectively defend its overstretched network of trading posts, and the empire began a long and gradual decline. Hachette tourisme, 2000. L' Empire colonial portugais (en portugais : Império Colonial Português) désigne les territoires d'outre-mer occupés et administrés par le Portugal entre le début du XV e siècle et le XX e siècle. In 1822, the son of Dom João VI, then prince-regent Dom Pedro I, proclaimed the independence of Brazil on September 7, 1822, and was crowned Emperor of the new Empire of Brazil. l'empire n'avait cessé, depuis la promulgation de l'Acte colonial en juillet 1930, de faire l'objet d'une intense propagande : aux yeux du dictateur portugais, président du Conseil de 1932 à 1968, il incarnait la grandeur et la continuité historiques de la mission civilisatrice du pays. [7][12] Under his sponsorship, soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira (1419) and Azores (1427) were reached and started to be settled, producing wheat for export to Portugal. [203], The outbreak of violence in February 1961 in Angola was the beginning of the end of Portugal's empire in Africa. Salazar rebuffed a request in 1950 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to return the enclaves, viewing them as integral parts of Portugal. L'histoire économique du Brésil, avant l'industrialisation du xx e siècle, apparaît comme une suite d'ascensions et … [220], Map of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; member states (blue), associate observers (green), and officially-interested countries & territories (gold), Actual possessions  Explorations  Areas of influence and trade  Claims of sovereignty  Trading posts  Main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence, The Se Cathedral in Goa, India, an example of Portuguese architecture and one of Asia's largest churches. The so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. Diversion and smuggling were frequent, along with altercations between Paulistas (residents of São Paulo) and Emboabas (immigrants from Portugal and other regions in Brazil), so a whole set of bureaucratic controls began in 1710 with the captaincy of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Le roi de Kandy s'allie aux Néerlandais pour rejeter les Portugais et, en 1659, Jaffna, la dernière place forte de ces derniers, tombe aux mains des Néerlandais. La Prusse était un territoire d'Europe du nord qui ne faisait pas partie Saint-Empire romain germanique. Comme les Portugais, ils s'installent sur l'île pour environ cent cinquante ans. Slave labor increased as well as involvement from the textile economy. The Mamlûk Sultanate sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri along with the Gujarati sultanate attacked Portuguese forces in the harbor of Chaul, resulting in the death of Almeida's son. Shortly afterward, Humayun turned his attention elsewhere, and the Gujarats allied with the Ottomans to regain control of Diu and lay siege to the fort. [111], Within a few years after Cabral arrived from Brazil, competition came along from France. Le poivre, les clous de girofle, la noix de muscade, la cannelle, s'arrachent à prix d'or sur les marchés européens. He and his nephew, Estácio de Sá, then established the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1567, after Mem de Sá proclaimed the area "São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro" in 1565. Thus, throughout the century, Brazil gained increasing importance to the empire, which exported Brazilwood and sugar. [82] In a shifting series of alliances, the Portuguese dominated much of the southern Persian Gulf for the next hundred years. Editions L’Harmattan, Paris, 2018, 478 pages, 39 euros. Le Brésil colonial inaugure une nouvelle ère de l'or, tandis que le roi José Ier met en place de profondes réformes depuis Lisbonne. [191], The King's reaction to the ultimatum was exploited by republicans. Le choix de Ceuta est stratégique : la place, située au nord de l'Afrique, est un comptoir portuaire où aboutissent les caravanes du Sahara transportant de l'or, des épices et des esclaves. Après sa conversion au protestantisme, Albert de Brandebourg-Ansbach a fondé le Duch… With the Portuguese already established in nearby Ternate, conflict was inevitable, leading to nearly a decade of skirmishes. [172], In 1755 Lisbon suffered a catastrophic earthquake, which together with a subsequent tsunami killed between 40,000 and 60,000 people out of a population of 275,000. This gold cycle led to the creation of an internal market and attracted a large number of immigrants. Partout ailleurs dans l'océan Indien, le dispositif des Portugais doit être réorganisé. Yosaburō Takekoshi, "The Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of Japan", The Portuguese period in East Africa – Page 112, The History of the Portuguese, During the Reign of Emmanuel p. 287, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPickettPickett2011 (, Francis A. Dutra. [27], In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope on the southern tip of Africa, proving false the view that had existed since Ptolemy that the Indian Ocean was land-locked. However, they soon began to shield Chinese junks and a cautious trade began. [46] After the capture of Socotra, Cunha and Albuquerque operated separately. nécessaire]. En plus des neuf membres permanents, la CPLP regroupe six observateurs : la Géorgie, le Japon, la République de Maurice, la Namibie, le Sénégal et la Turquie[réf. In the process of expanding the trade routes, Portuguese navigators mapped unknown parts of Africa, and began exploring the Indian Ocean. When King Philip II of Spain (Philip I of Portugal) seized the Portuguese crown in 1580 there began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal known to subsequent historiography as the Iberian Union. Ils planifient une expédition militaire visant directement les terres musulmanes du nord de l'Afrique, aux mains des Mérinides. The Equator was crossed by navigators sponsored by Fernão Gomes in 1473 and the Congo River by Diogo Cão in 1482. L'empire colonial portugais. Les origines de l'empire portugais et du royaume du Portugal lui-même, s'inscrivent dans la reconquista, reconquête chrétienne de la péninsule Ibérique occupée alors par les Maures qui avaient bâti l'Al-Andalus. [62][63], The Portuguese empire pushed further south and proceeded to discover Timor in 1512. La deuxième est consolidée par la domination de l'océan et le monopole de l'état en même que se consolidait l'appareil administratif outremer (1460-1468). In 1525, Spain under Charles V sent an expedition to colonize the Moluccas islands, claiming they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas, since there was no set limit to the east. Officiellement, on lui a longtemps préféré celui d’« Outre-mer portugais » (Ultramar português) avant d'adopter temporairement le terme d’« Empire colonial portugais » entre 1930 et 1951. Known as the "Carnation Revolution", one of the first acts of the MFA-led government which then came into power – the National Salvation Junta (Junta de Salvação Nacional) – was to end the wars and negotiate Portuguese withdrawal from its African colonies. Soon its ships were bringing into the European market highly valued gold, ivory, pepper, cotton, sugar, and slaves. Ce n'est qu'en 1557 que l'Empire Céleste accorde aux Portugais le droit d'établir un comptoir sur la péninsule de Macao, dans l'estuaire du Xi Jiang. In the Azores, the Islands Armada protected the ships en route to Lisbon. Les Portugais parviennent aussi à éloigner les Turcs ottomans de l'Inde et à désamorcer, en 1521 et en 1572, les coalitions formées par les princes musulmans[3]. In 1505 King Manuel I of Portugal appointed Francisco de Almeida first Viceroy of Portuguese India, establishing the Portuguese government in the east. Formation de l'Empire colonial portugaisest le numéro 115 d'une série de plus de 160 études produites par cette section, dont la plupart furent publiées après la conclusion de la conférence de paix de Paris en 1919. [194] The main objective of these soldiers was to recapture the Kionga Triangle, in northern Mozambique, the territory having been subjugated by Germany. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and South Asia. Libéré de cette menace et à l'écart des conflits qui occupent les autres puissances européennes, les souverains portugais portent leur attention de l'autre côté de la mer. Pour ce qui est de sa fin, la date varie selon les critères utilisés : 1975 qui voit la majeure partie des colonies accéder à l'indépendance ou 1999 qui voit la fin de l'administration portugaise de Macao, dernier territoire d'outre-mer officiellement sous souveraineté portugaise. The realms continued to have separate administrations. In the wake of the Reconquista, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the caravel, with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice-trade. The Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was forced to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese, establishing an alliance to regain the country, giving in exchange Daman, Diu, Mumbai and Bassein. La conquête de l'intérieur du pays est essentiellement le fait d'expéditions des habitants des établissements côtiers (bandeirantes), le plus souvent métis et relativement autonomes vis-à-vis de la métropole. Néanmoins l'expansion de l'Empire ottoman pousse les espagnols et les portugais à trouver d'autres voies, cette fois maritimes, pour atteindre ce qu'on appelle alors les Indes. En 1373, Lisbonne signait avec Londres le premier d'une série de traités, formant l'alliance anglo-portugaise qui ne sera pas sans conséquence quant au devenir de ses conquêtes maritimes. Cette mesure, considérée comme exceptionnelle et transitoire au Portugal, est maintenue après le congrès de Vienne de 1815, ce qui provoque un fort mécontentement en métropole. In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey (now Benin) annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. [34][35] Whether or not this was the case, the long-standing Portuguese goal of finding a sea route to Asia was finally achieved in a ground-breaking voyage commanded by Vasco da Gama. A resolution was reached with the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1529, attributing the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain. Le personnage-clé de cette période est le prince Henri le Navigateur, gouverneur de l'Ordre du Christ (héritier portugais de l'Ordre du Temple), ayant participé à la prise de Ceuta.

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